Some of the following publications are available for download as Adobe PDF documents. Download Acrobat Reader
(PDF 316 KB)
The U.S. EPA and the Aluminum Association sponsored measurements of two perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases: tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane. The measurements at six primary aluminum production facilities provided data on emissions of these compounds during normal aluminum smelting operations.
PDF 139 KB)
The paper, presented in 2002 at the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-3), provides an overview of global efforts to reduce emissions and reviews technical options to reduce PFC greenhouse gas emissions from primary aluminum production.
PDF 169 KB)
This paper describes a measurement protocol, developed by EPA and the International Aluminum Institute, to assist with developing accurate PFC inventories based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 3b method. The protocol has been produced with an aim to foster consistency in smelter-specific sampling programs.
(PDF 331 KB)
The primary aluminum industry is continually working to improve production efficiency, reduce energy consumption, and enhance environmental performance. As part of EPA's Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) Program, eleven U.S. primary producers are focusing on reducing the duration and frequency of anode effects (AEs), which reduce production efficiency and generate two perfluorocarbons (PFCs), CF4 and C2F6.
PDF 1.3 MB)
This report summarizes international efforts to reduce PFC emissions through government-industry initiatives. It describes each producer nation's PFC reduction efforts, accomplishments, and challenges. Future options for reducing PFC emissions from primary aluminum production are also discussed.
PDF 80 KB)
This paper presents the results of the first set of PFC measurements sponsored by the VAIP Program at individual aluminum smelters. The paper reviews the data, and provides recommendations for predicting PFC emissions based on time reduction cells are on anode effect. This paper was published in the February 1998 issue of Light Metals.
PDF 3.16 MB)
Substantial energy efficiency gains have been made in the aluminum industry over the past forty years, resulting in a 58% decrease in energy utilization. However, as shown in the recently completed U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production, Historical Perspective, Theoretical Limits, and New Opportunities, room for improvement remains. Overall, the industry is operating at more than three times its theoretical minimum energy requirement. This report provides detailed appendices, statistical data, and descriptions of the fundamental chemistry as well as practical aspects of aluminum production processes. It compares current usage levels and theoretical minimum energy requirements to demonstrate that large energy saving opportunities exist.
This 8-page brochure provides pointers for enhancing the efficiency of melters and furnaces to cut process heating costs by 10 to 30%.
PDF 7.3 MB)
This workshop report is a starting point for identifying opportunities for use of advanced ceramics in aluminum production and processing. The report addresses aluminum production via smelting and melting, as well as molten metal handling. However, opportunities for advanced ceramics most likely exist further downstream in the aluminum process (casting, finishing, etc.).
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The following case studies are available for download as Adobe PDF documents.
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Aluminum Case Studies
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Page Last Modified: August 7, 2008